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Hummingbird, Ruby-Throated

Scientific Name: Archilochus colubris

Family: Trochilidae

Native Range: Summer Range: North America, Pennsylvania; Winter Range:

Size: Length:  7 to 9 cm (2.8 to 3.5 in) long; Wingspan: 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 in)

Active: Spring – fall*

Field Markings: “Metallic green above; Adult male has brilliant red gorget, black chin, whitish underparts, dusky green sides; Female lacks gorget, has whitish throat and underparts, and a buffy wash on sides.” (Alderfer p. 118-119)

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American Goldfinch

Scientific Name: Spinus tristis

Family: Fringillidae

Native Range: Eastern North America, Pennsylvania

Size: Medium finch: Length: 11–14 cm (4.3–5.5 in); Wingspan: 19–22 cm (7.5–8.7 in)

Active: Year-round resident*

Field Markings: “Breeding male is bright yellow with black cap; female and winter male duller overall, lacking cap; ‘;[Black wings with white bars; Black-and-white tail; white undertail coverts.” (Alderfer p. 258-259)

August 7, 2020: Alderfer says, “Typical goldfinch diet, mostly seeds, is the most vegetarian of any North American bird, though the goldfinch does sometimes eat insects as well.” In our yard, goldfinches prefer seeds from sunflowers and cup plants. They can often be seen pushing each other off favored stalks to get seeds.

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Finch, House

Scientific Name: Haemorhous mexicanus

Family: Fringillidae

Native Range: Western North America, introduced in the east, Pennsylvania

Size: Medium finch: Length 12.5 to 15 cm (4.9 to 5.9 in); Wingspan: 20 to 25 cm (7.9 to 9.8 in)

Active: Year-round resident*

Field Markings: “Male’s forehead, bib, and rump are typically red, but can be orange or, occasionally yellow; brown streaked back, pale belly, streaked flanks; Female streaked dusky brown on entire body” (Alderfer p. 256-257)